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The application of Appropriate Technology

Articles for Keyword "bio-sand filters"

An Introduction to Slow Sand Filtration

Posted on Oct 26, 2011

The use of sand and gravel as filter media for water supplies can me split into three basic filter types: slow sand filters, rapid filters and roughing filters. Apart from desalination and reverse osmosis, slow sand filters are perhaps the most effective single treatment for purifying drinking water supplies. They are use on a large scale as part of the water supply for large cities, as part of systems for small villages and on a much smaller scale they can be adapted for use in individual households. Rapid sand filters are normally require a subsequent chlorination process and are thus of less use for small village supplies unless the raw (untreated) water supply is of a reliably high quality. Roughing filters are used to reduce the turbidity of water supplied and often used as a pre-treatment before slow sand filtration. This short document gives an introduction to these filtration methods. You can read the whole document as a PDF file (7...

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Biosand Filters

Posted on Oct 29, 2011

The biosand filter is a modified form of the traditional slow sand filter in such a way that the filters can be built on a smaller scale and can be operated intermittently. These modifications make the biosand filter suitable for household or small group use. The biosand filter can be produced locally anywhere in the world using materials that are readily available. It was considered impractical to operate a slow sand filter intermittently, due to the need for a continuous supply of food and oxygen. However, Dr. Manz of the University of Calgary re-designed the traditional sand filter, making it suitable for intermittent use at a household level. This adaptation, brilliant in simplicity, consists of raising the under drain pipe back up to between 1 and 8 cm above the sand level, ensuring a foolproof method for maintaining the water level just above the sand. Manz proved that, even when water is not continually added to the filter, oxygen can still permeate into the water to reach the organisms living in the sand by diffusion accross this shallow layer of standing water. Intermittently-operated slow sand filters can be small units that easily supply enough clean water for a family. Therefore, they are particularly suited for use in low-income countries, where the majority of people rely on untreated, contaminated surface water. Find out in detail how intermittently-operated slow sand filters work. A couple of great manuals from Biosandfilter.org on making moulds and casting biosand filters for domestic use: Mould Construction Guidelines (960 Kb) Filter Casting Instructions (1.2 Mb) Another document about casting the filters from concrete, this one is from CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology): An Introduction To Slow Sand Filtration (7.1...

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Managing Water In The Home: Accelerating Health Gains From Improved Water Supply

Posted on Oct 26, 2011

A WHO document from 2002 examining small scale water purification methods. A large fraction of the World’s population around 1.1 billion people – does not have access to improved sources of water. For many others, contamination of water during transport and in the household presents a significant health risk. For this segment of the world’s population, use of effective technologies for household water treatment and storage is likely to have direct beneficial effects in the form of reduced infectious diseases and also contribute to greater productivity and other associated benefits from improved health. Household treatment often can provide these benefits to underserved populations much more quickly than it will take to design, install and deliver piped community water supplies. Identifying the most accessible and effective methods for household water storage and treatment are matters of considerable importance and are the subject of this report. You can read the whole document as a PDF file (244...

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