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The application of Appropriate Technology

Articles for Keyword "water well"

Drilling Boreholes For Hand Pumps

Posted on Oct 25, 2011

Booklet by SKAT (Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management) detailing the drilling of boreholes for handpumps. The provision of underground water supplies has suffered for many years from a mismatch between the water source (the borehole) and the pumping device (the handpump). This uneven correlation has often led to the construction of costly and unsustainable systems based on imported technology. Optimisation of the processes for producing boreholes can reduce well drilling costs and thus help to accelerate production. Well costs can be diminished by optimising methods employed during the following stages of construction: Finding groundwater, Borehole design, Drilling techniques, and Well development and construction Drilling equipment that is light and easy-to-maintain can be used for drilling boreholes. Its successful application requires rather sound procedures and skilful operations than high investments. This allows making use of the resources that lay in the local private sector. This booklet seeks to suggest ways in which funds can be better used for making safe water available to the poor by illustrating how drilling costs can be reduced without compromising water quality, water quantity, or the productive life of the borehole. These arguments are directed towards the rural water supply sector as a whole. Those directly addressed are primarily decision makers, government civil servants, planners and implementers of water projects who are not experts in drilling, as well as technical people, project leaders, technical aid personnel etc. This publication is neither a detailed drilling manual nor a methodology of drilling methods. The author draws on his extensive experience as a member of the UNICEF Water and Environmental Sanitation community. He hopes that his views and proposals will be a catalyst for change, and that this contribution will stimulate interest in experimenting with ideas on low cost drilling of boreholes for handpumps. You can read the whole document as a PDF file...

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Rope Pump Manual, Hand Dug Well & Borehole model

Posted on Oct 25, 2011

A good manual by the Practica Foundation on rope pumps for hand dug wells and boreholes. This manual is made as a guide for organizations and workshops which are involved in the introduction process of the manually operated Rope pump and for technicians to be trained in Production, Installation and Operation & Maintenance of the Rope pump models: ‘Hand dug well’ (AH) and ‘Borehole’ (AB). Experiences indicate that for a successful introduction, production and installation of Rope pumps on a large scale, the use of any production and installation manual has to be combined with hands-on training by an experienced trainer! The trainer will guide the organization and/or workshops through all aspects of the introduction and production process. Lessons learned from the past show that a number of small mistakes usually are made during the first years of production. However, these minor ‘mistakes’ can have a large influence on the life time and functioning of the pump. If these impurities are not corrected in time by a professional, the Rope pump option will gain a negative image amongst users and others in an almost irreversible way! It is therefore that it is strongly suggested this manual will only be used in combination with a professional training, whereby the manual will be distributed to the participants, who can later use it as a reference handbook. The practical training will focus on all essential aspects for producing and introducing the Rope pump. You can read the whole of this document as a PDF file (2.4...

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Rota Sludge & Stone Hammer Drilling

Posted on Oct 25, 2011

There are various techniques for drilling a drinking water or irrigation tube well. The drilling method used is related to the soil conditions and the financial means available. In general, drilling techniques can be divided into two categories i.e. drilling with a machine or manually. The greatest difference between the two methods is that drilling with a machine is much more expensive than drilling by hand. The manual method is thus the preferred choice for low-cost wells but it obviously has its limitations. If the ground is too hard like for instance solid rock, manual drilling is often not feasible and only machine drilling can be considered. In certain circumstances, digging the well by hand may be an option. However, there are certain disadvantages regarding the so-called “dug well”: the dangers while undertaking the work, the difficulty of penetrating deep enough into the aquifer, the relatively high costs and the poor hygienic conditions. Practica has since 1999, conducted research into the possibilities of manually drilling low cost tube wells. The objective is to make this method as efficient and inexpensive as possible so as to make wells affordable for a larger part of the rural population in developing countries. The research was initiated in North Bengal, India. There, drilling was done using the traditional Hand-sludge method. This technique could not pass hard layers or boulders and so additional tools were developed resulting in the Stone-hammer method. In 2001 these methods were further tested in Nicaragua. Here, a rotary movement was added, resulting in the Rota- sludge method. The Rota-sludge and the Stonehammer methods together form a package. Basically one drills with the Rota Sludge until one hits a layer with boulders or stones, then one uses the Stone-hammer to pass through this layer and finally one switches back to Rota Sludge when the boulders are passed. Part 1 of this manual describes, step by step, how the Rota sludge and Stone hammer method must be used and part 2 provides detailed drawings of the equipment. Part 1 Drilling Manual PDF file (2.2 mb) Part 2 Production Manual PDF file (0.5...

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Small Community Water Supplies

Posted on Oct 24, 2011

This book is a very good place to start learning about building a water supply. It covers all the things that you will need to know about sourcing water including rain water harvesting, spring, wells and surface water. It also has sections on water quality and treatment. This book is made available here as PDF files. View or download the whole book in one file ( 9.8mb PDF file) 0r view the book chapter by chapter: Chapter 1: Introduction (92kb PDF file) Chapter 2: Planning and Management (124kb PDF file) Chapter 3: Small community water services in Central and Eastern European Countries – situation, challenges, needs and developments (100kb PDF file) Chapter 4: Water quality and quantity (112kb PDF file) Chapter 5: Integrated Water Resources Management (128kb PDF file) Chapter 6: Artificial recharge (636kb PDF file) Chapter 7: Rainwater harvesting (460kb PDF file) Chapter 8: Spring water tapping (1mb PDF file) Chapter 9: Pumping (500kb PDF file) Chapter 10: Groundwater withdrawal (1.7mb PDF file) Chapter 11: Surface water intake and small dams (772kb PDF file) Chapter 12: Water treatment (244kb PDF file) Chapter 13: Aeration (168kb PDF file) Chapter 14: Coagulation and flocculation (296kb PDF file) Chapter 15: Sedimentation (212kb PDF file) Chapter 16: Multi-stage filtration technology (688kb PDF file) Chapter 17: Rapid filtration (2.2mb PDF file) Chapter 18: Desalination technology (412kb PDF file) Chapter 19: Disinfection (292kb PDF file) Chapter 20: Water transmission (888kb PDF file) Chapter 21: Water distribution (1.3mb PDF file) Chapter 22: Technologies for fluoride removal (1.1mb PDF file) Chapter 23: Technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater (336kb PDF file) Chapter 24: Water supply in disasters and emergencies (1mb PDF...

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