WATER

Water will be in the twenty-first century what oil was in the twentieth century. Global fresh water shortages and drought conditions are spreading in both the developed and developing World.

This page is aimed at those who are working to confront this growing problem, providing low-fat manuals, high-fibre modelling software, easy-to-use spreadsheets and accessible technical data to assist in the design, construction, and maintenance of water supply systems. The page is divided into sections for quick access to the information required. All material is copy-left and can be freely reproduced and distributed, unless otherwise stated.

Page Contents

1. Water System Design and Construction

a. Manuals and Technical Resources

b. Epanet

c. Frictional loss tables

d. Links

2. Gravity Flow Water Systems

a. Manuals and Technical Resources

b. Spreadsheets and calculations

c. Photographs

3. Pump systems

a. Manuals and Technical Resources

b. Spreadsheets and calculations

c. Links

4. Domestic Rain Water Harvesting (DRWH)

a. Manuals and Technical Resources

b. Spreadsheets and calculations

c. Photographs

d. Links

5. Water tanks

a. Manuals and Technical Resources

b. Spreadsheets and calculations

c. Photographs

d. Links

6. Water treatment

a. General water treatment

b. Multi-stage filtration technology

c. Slow sand filtration technology

d. Solar Water Treatment

e. Links

7. Downloads

Mirador de las Palmas Water Project Presentation

 

1. Water System Design & Construction

1.a Manuals and Technical Resources

## Small Community Water Supplies

The revised edition of the IRC book, Small Community Water Supplies. An excellent textbook which links water supply science and technology with the specific needs of small communities in developing countries.

## Advanced Water Distribution Modelling and Management

A very complete and up-to-date textbook on water distribution and management by the Bentley Institute Press, designed to be a first course for the novice modeller or engineering student, as well as a reference for those more experienced with distribution system simulations.

## Fluid Mechanics for Gravity-Flow Water Systems and Pumps Made Simple

A text detailing the design of water systems including the design parameters recommended for a successful and long lasting water supply.

## The Anatomy Of A Gravity Flow Water System
This section contains a general introduction to gravity flow water systems and slideshows that document the construction of a complete system for a small rural community using a small spring source. The system consists of a spring tank, valve boxes, mainline, reservoir tank and distribution network. The reservoir tank in this system was made using a pre-fabricated mould for the walls and brick vaulting for the roof.

1b. Epanet

EPANET is a Windows 95/98/NT/XP program that models water distribution piping systems, allowing the user to model and design efficient and effective networks without needing to fully understand the intricacies of hydraulic theory and fluid mechanics. Epanet performs extended-period simulation of the hydraulic and water quality behaviour within pressurized pipe networks, both for gravity-flow and pump systems.
EPANET is public domain software that may be freely copied and distributed.

1c. Frictional Loss Tables

## Frictional Loss Chart
Data for frictional losses in plastic pipe
Diameter: 13-75mm
Flow rates: 0.06-3.15LPS
Frictional coefficient: C=150

1d. Links

## http://www.epanet.com
One-stop source for software technology, news, and collaboration related to Epanet and water distribution modelling.

## http://www.zonums.com
Programs and complimentary tools for use with Epanet.

## http://google-maps-images-downloader.en.softonic.com
Program that allows the user to download Google Map images for use with Epanet.

## http://www.al.gov.bc.ca/resmgmt/publist/Water.htm
The Government of British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. An excellent collection of PDF documents covering many aspects of water supply.

## http://www.irc.nl/page/100
This section of the IRC site contains numerous PDF manuals relating to water supply.

##http://www.watsanweb.ch/Content/Literature/Literature.htm
This selection provides you with online information on water policies, lessons learned, reports, conference papers, statistics, and proceedings.

## http://www.lifewater.org/resources/tech_library.html
This section of the Lifewater site contains numerous PDF manuals relating to water supply.

## http://www.gtz.de/en/publikationen/686.htm
This section of the GTZ site contains numerous PDF manuals relating to water supply.

## http://www.surrey.ac.uk/water-e/main.php
The water-e website of the University of Surrey, providing online building guidelines for water and sanitation technologies.

## http://www.oas.org/usde/publications/Unit/oea59e/begin.htm#Contents
Source Book of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean

## http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/hot-water-systems-t_29.html
General information about fluid mechanics and water-related engineering.

2. Gravity-flow Water Systems

2a. Manuals and technical resources

## Construction of a Gravity-fed Water Supply and Treatment System in Developing Countries
Excellent manual covering every aspect of the design and construction of a gravity-fed water supply system.

## The Anatomy of a Gravity Flow Water System
This section contains a general introduction to gravity flow water systems and slideshows that document the construction of a complete system for a small rural community using a small spring source. The system consists of a spring tank, valve boxes, mainline, reservoir tank and distribution network. The reservoir tank in this system was made using a pre-fabricated mould for the walls and brick vaulting for the roof.

## Parameters For Successful Gravity Flow Water Design
Condensed from A Handbook of Gravity-Flow Water Systems, Thomas D. Jordan Jnr., Intermediate Technology Publishing.

## Understanding gravity-flow pipelines: Water Flow, Air Locks and Siphons
Useful factsheet from the British Colombia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands detailing the problems and solutions of gravity flow pipe system design. Calculating water flow, pipe size, understanding air locks, and using siphons are covered. Examples and references are given.

2b. Spreadsheet and Calculations

## Natural Flow Calculator Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet allows the user to calculate the natural flow rate (LPS) of any combination of up to 4 pipes of different diameters (in) for given pipe lengths (m) and known head (m).

*** Note: this spreadsheet contains macros, and will not work with Excel 2007. Use previous versions of Excel.

## Survey & Natural Flow Calculation Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet calculates the system profile from survey data for surveys conducted with a theodolite. It also allows for the calculation of natural flow using a combination of different pipe sizes.

*** Note: this spreadsheet contains macros, and will not work with Excel 2007. Use previous versions of Excel.

## Head Loss Calculator Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet allows the user to calculate the frictional head loss (m) for a given flow rate (LPS) and pipe length (m), for a series of different diameter pipes (in). The user can also find the optimum combination of 100m sections of two pipes of different diameters (in) to "burn off" a given frictional head (m).

*** Note: this spreadsheet contains macros, and will not work with Excel 2007. Use previous versions of Excel.

2c. Photographs

## The Anatomy Of A Gravity Flow Water System
This section contains slideshows that document the construction of a complete gravity flow system. The system consists of a spring tank, valve boxes, mainline, reservoir tank and distribution network. The reservoir tank in this system was made using a pre-fabricated mould for the walls and brick vaulting for the roof.

3.Water Pumps

3a. Manuals and technical resources

## Small Community Water Supplies: Pumping
Good manual on water pumping for small rural communities.

## Drilling boreholes for hand pumps
Booklet by SKAT detailing the drilling of boreholes for handpumps.

## Rural Water Supply Technology Options: Handpumps, Mechanised Pumps and Surface Water
Booklet by SKAT with information on hand pumps, mechanised pumps and rainwater and surface water Collection.

## Rope Pump Manual, Hand dug well & Borehole model
A good manual by the Practica Foundation on rope pumps for hand dug wells and boreholes.

## Rota Sludge & Stone Hammer drilling: Part 1 Drilling Manual
Part 1 of a manual by the Practica Foundation on well drilling.

## Rota Sludge & Stone Hammer drilling: Part 2 Production Manual
Part 2 of a manual by the Practica Foundation on well drilling.

## Photovoltaic Water Pumps
Short technical brief by the GTZ on photovoltaic pumping systems.

## Kyocera Solar Water Pumps
Products catalogue and technical information on Kyocera solar pumps.

## Centrifugal Pump Selection and Installation
Factsheet by the British Colombia Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries on the correct selection and installation of centrifugal pumps.

3b. Spreadsheets & Calculations

## Pump Calculator Spreadsheet

This spreadsheet allows the user to find the pump power requirement (Watts or Brake Horse Power) for various feeder pipe diameters (in) and given a known flow rate (LPS), pipe length (m) and head (m) and then select a suitable pump based upon available pump characteristic data.

## Solar Pump Spreadsheet
PDF spreadsheet for designing solar pumping systems

3c. Links

## http://www.practicafoundation.nl/library/manuals/
Information on rope pumps and borehole drilling.

## http://practicalaction.org/practicalanswers/product_info.php?products_id=196
Technical briefs relating to solar water pumping.

## http://journeytoforever.org/at_waterpump.html
Information regarding hydraulic ram pumps.

4. Domestic Rain Water Harvesting (DRWH)

4a. Manuals and Technical Resources

## Roof water Harvesting
The most detailed and complete manual on domestic rainwater harvesting we could find in the entire world, by the IRC.

## Small Community Water Supplies: Rainwater Harvesting
Good manual on DRWH.

## Rainwater Harvesting
ITDG technical brief on DRWH.

## Rainwater Reservoirs for Roof Catchment
A GTZ manual detailing different catchment possibilities, tank designs, guttering and downpipes for DRWH

4b. Spreadsheets and calculations

 ## Rain Water Harvesting Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet allows the user to size a DRWH storage tank, with a given surface catchment area (m2), and daily demand (litres). The spreadsheet contains rainfall data for Chiapas, Mexico, but this can be easily substituted for rainfall data in any given location.

4c. Photographs

Click here to see a photo presentation of a rain water harvesting system, with filter and buried storage tank.

4d. Links

## http://www.rainwater-toolkit.net
Good site providing en eToolkit on rainwater harvesting.
##http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/eng/research/dtu/rwh
Warwick University’s Development Technology Unit offer useful information here on DRWH systems, along with an online rainwater tank performance calculator.
## http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org
US site with plenty of information about DRWH.
## http://www.harvesth2o.com
Site with a host of information about DRWH

## http://www.rainharvesting.co.uk
UK site with information on domestic, garden and commercial rain harvesting Systems.

5. Water Tanks

5a. Manuals and technical resources

## Ferrocement water tanks and their construction
A detailed guide to building ferrocement water tanks.

## Ferrocement water tanks
Short technical brief on building ferrocement tanks.

## Buried and semi-submerged water tanks
Short technical brief on building buried and semi-submerged water tanks

5b. Spreadsheets and calculations

## Reservoir Tank Sizing Spreadsheet
This spreadsheet allows the user to calculate the required volume of a reservoir tank (Litres) based upon the overall daily demand of a community (Litres) and the flow rate into the tank (LPS). It also allows the user to calculate the material requirements (sand, gravel, cement etc) for the construction of a circular, curved roof ferro-cement reservoir tank given a known capacity (Litres) and tank wall height (m).

5c. Photographs

## Tank Construction Slide Show
A slide show depicting the construction of a large 41,000 litre ferrocement storage tank. This will open in a new window.

5d. Links

## http://ferrocement.com/Page_1/english.html
Site with a large amount of information on ferrocement construction.

## http://www.ferrocement.net
Site dedicated to the exchange of information about ferrocement.

6. Water Treatment

6a. General

## WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, Vol. 1: 3rd edition

##An Introduction To Water Hardness
A document providing an introduction to the causes and treatment of hard water, including magnetic water softeners.

## Managing Water In The Home: Accelerating Health Gains From Improved Water Supply
A WHO document from 2002 examining small scale water purification methods.

## Facilitating community water supply
This publication is about what it takes to ensure that when people open their tap they can safely drink the water, with information on water treatment, multi-stage filtration and slow-sand filtration.

6b. Multi-stage filtration (MSF) technology

## Surface Water Treatment by Roughing Filters
Excellent manual on roughing filters by SANDEC, detailing water treatment alternatives applicable to rural water supplies and processes for solid matter separation. For further SANDEC publications, go here: http://www.eawag.ch

## Horizontal flow roughing filter (HRF)
Manual detailing how to estimate and design horizontal flow roughing filters (HRF).

6c. Slow sand filtration (SSF) technology

## An Introduction to Slow Sand Filtration
A short document introducing the design and operation of slow sand filters, roughing filters and household bio-filters.

## Slow Sand Filtration
By L. HUISMAN and W.E. WOOD. A WHO document from 1974 outlining the action, construction, operation and maintenance of slow sand filters. This is the standard text on the subject. (PDF Files)

## Life Water Slow Sand Filter
Plans, construction and operation instructions for Life Water's slow sand filter. (PDF Files)

##Biosand Filter: Mould Construction Guidelines and Filter Casting Instructions
A couple of great manuals from Biosandfilter.org on making moulds and casting biosand filters for domestic use.

## BIOSAND FILTER MANUAL: Design, Construction, Installation, Operation and Maintenance
CAWST manual on household biofilters.

## An Introduction To Slow Sand Filtration
A short document introducing the design and operation of slow sand filters, roughing filters and household bio-filters.

6d. Solar Water Treatment

## SODIS Technical Notes. A treatment method to eliminate the pathogens which cause water-borne diseases. It is ideally suited for disinfecting small quantities of drinking water and depends on solar energy only. Also the only equipment needed is PET (soft drink) bottles.

This file is taken from the website http://www.sodis.ch, where more information including educational material can be found.

## Solar Water Distiller
Technical brief on how to build a solar water distiller.

6e. Links

## www.biosandfilter.org
This site contains a good account of small household sand filters, including plans for their construction.

## http://web.mit.edu/watsan/
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at MIT have conducted many in situ studies into the effectiveness of household sand filters. Many theses on the subject can be found on this site.

##http://www.eawag.ch/organisation/abteilungen/sandec/schwerpunkte/ws/projects/roughing_filter/index_EN
Details of roughing filter technology can be found here.

## http://www.sandec.ch
Sandec is the Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries at the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). The site contains a numerous publications relating to water treatment.

## http://www.sodis.ch
Site detailing household solar water disinfection.

## http://www.lifewater.org/resources/water_treatment.html#WT
Site with numerous PDF manuals on varying water treatment tecnologies.

 

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