English English.   Español  Español.

The application of Appropriate Technology

Solar Photovoltaics

As more and more countries are industrialised, energy consumption is increasing. World energy consumption has risen by 25 since last century. Average electricity consumption per capita is about ten times higher in industrialized countries than in the developing world. However, demand is growing up almost 5% annually all over the world, so we’ll need new sources of renewable and sustainable energy such as solar power.

  • Articles:

    The Sun As A Source Of Energy

    A guide to how to calculate the amount of the Sun’s energy that is incident on an inclined plane at any latitude. Including a section on solar astronomy.

    A Guide To Photovoltaic Panels

    Information about PV panels, how to interpret manufactures’ data and how to select the correct mounting angle. This article is based around autonomous and semi-autonomous systems that use PV panels to charge a bank of lead-acid batteries.

    Solar Panel Angles for Various Latitudes

    Choose the line that refers to your latitude from the right-hand y-axis. Read off the angle from the left-hand y- axis that should be used for each month of the year (listed on the horizontal axis). Negative angles indicate that the panel is inclined to face north. You could reset your panel angle every week […]

    A Guide To Lead-Acid Battries

    General information about lead-acid batteries, charging practice, determining the state of charge and safety tips.

    Solar Pump Calculation Sheet

    PDF calculation sheet for designing solar pumping systems. Download this sheet as a PDF file (92 kb)