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The application of Appropriate Technology



Water will be in the twenty-first century what oil was in the twentieth century. Global fresh water shortages and drought conditions are spreading in both the developed and developing World.

This page is aimed at those who are working to confront this growing problem, providing low-fat manuals, high-fibre modelling software, easy-to-use spreadsheets and accessible technical data to assist in the design, construction, and maintenance of water supply systems. The page is divided into sections for quick access to the information required. All material is copy-left and can be freely reproduced and distributed, unless otherwise stated.

    • Sections:

      Gravity Flow Water Systems

      Information about water systems that require no pumps to make them work, using only the contours in the terrain to deliver clean drinking water.

    • EPANET & System Modeling

      EPANET is public domain software that may be freely copied and distributed that models water distribution piping systems, allowing the user to model and design efficient and effective networks without needing to fully understand the intricacies of hydraulic theory and fluid mechanics.

      • EPANET Links

        Some links to useful resources that will help you use EPANET.

    • Pumped Water Systems

      Information about the construction of water systems that require pump. This section includes details of hand pumps, powered pumps and solar pumping as well as some information about digging wells and boreholes.

    • Rainwater Harvesting

      If there is no spring in the vicinity that can provide clean water rainwater catchment might be the best way to safe drinking water.

    • Water Tanks

      Articles about the design and construction of water tanks.

    • Water Treatment

      Information about drinking filtering drinking water and coping with water hardness.

      • Water Quality

        Articles about drinking water standards and how to ensure a safe water supply.

      • Water Filtration

        Documents about slow sand filtration and multi-stage filtration. Slow sand filtration can be use from a very small household scale right up to filtering the water supplies for whole cities. It allows water to pass slowly through a sand bed where the majority of the purifying process happens in a naturally occurring bio-layer in the first few millimetres of […]

      • Solar Water Treatment

        This is a very simple method of killing pathogens in water using nothing more than a soft drink bottle and the sun.

      • Water Treatment Links

        Links to sites that have information about water treatment and water quality.

    • Miscellaneous Water System Links

      Miscellaneous links to online resources that contain large numbers of documents covering various aspects of water systems.