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The application of Appropriate Technology

Distribution Network

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

In this system each family got their own tap that is connected to the reservoir tank using a polyethylene pipe network. The exit pipe work at the base of the reservoir. Making the tapstands. Fixing a t-joint into the distribution pipe work. A finished tap...

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Reservoir Tank – Brick Roof

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

This tank has a vaulted brick roof, a method that is both cheaper and quicker than making a reinforced concrete roof. The brick for the revervoir tank roof. Laying the first layer of bricks for the tank roof. Building up the layers. As long as the cement is of the correct consistency no pre-form is needed. The roof builds up over the tank. Building up more layers of bricks. The Roof From The Outside Layers of bricks. Laying the last layer of bricks. Fitting the tank cover. The finished brick work on the roof before it is plastered. Plastering the roof around the cover. The finished outside with the roof plastered. Plastering the inside of the roof. The exit pipes fitted to the tank base. Preparing to finish the base of the tank. Pouring the base of the tank. Finishing the base and the valve box for the exit pipes. The finished...

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Reservoir Tank – Mould

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

The reservoir tank is placed at a point near the village that is higher than all the houses that are to be supplied. The tank must be large enough to ensure an uninterrupted supply during the times of day when there is the peak demand. The tank is thus sized according to the size of the population and the flow rate from the spring during the dry season. The tank in this system is a 13 000 litre tank made from reinforced concrete using a pre-fabricated mould. The tank has a vaulted brick roof, a method that is both cheaper and quicker than making a reinforced concrete roof. Preparing the ground for the reservoir tank. Flattening the gravel base. Adding a layer of stones to the base. Pouring the concrete base onto the prepared gravel and stone layers. Finishing the concrete base. Adding re-bar to the base to provide reinforcement. Preparing the rebar for the reservoir tank wall. Constructiong the inside wall of the reservoir tank mould. The completed inside wall of the reservoir tank mould with re-bar around the outside.. Fitting the bottom layer of the mould’s outer wall. Mixing the concrete for the walls. Filling the bottom layer of the mould with concrete. Filling the top layer of the mould with concrete. The Filled Mould. The view inside the mould showing the exit pipe. Removing the outside sections of the mould. The outside of the tank wall once the mould is removed. Plastering the inside walls of the tank. Plastering the outside walls of the...

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The Anatomy Of A Gravity Flow Water System

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

This section contains photographs that detail the construction of a gravity flow water system for 32 families. The system cost £130 per family and took 30 people 18 days to build. Before the system can be designed the area must be surveyed. The system consists of: A spring tank; A main pipeline, including a pipe bridge; A reservoir tank; A distribution network that leads to a tap at each house. For a gravity flow system to work properly the pipes must run full of water with no air locks. Gravity can then be used to move water, over hills and undulations, between the spring and the reservoir tank. This method works for as long as the spring tank is at the highest point in the system and that there is enough height difference, between the spring tank and the reservoir tank, to give a sufficient flow rate once friction losses have been taken into account. The distribution network also uses gravity to move water to the taps through thinner...

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The Main Pipeline

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

This system has 4 km of pipe. The main pipeline runs from the spring tank to the reservoir tank. Because of the large drop between the spring tank and the pipe bridge PVC pipe (rather than the usual polyethylene) was used to cope with the large pressures. Due to the topography a break pressure tank was not included in the design. A galvanised steel pipe bridge spansa river at the lowest point below the spring tank. The pipes reads for the laying of the pipe line. The PVC (white) and Polyethylene (black) pipe. Laying the PVC mainline from the spring tank to the reservoir tank. Joining two PVC pipe ends on the mainline. Laying the PVC pipes for the mainline. Crossing a river by building a pipe bridge. The finished pipe bridge. The Wash-out PIpe running from the mainline into the river. Building a valve box on the wash-out pipe. The finished pipe bridge, wash-out and valve...

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