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The application of Appropriate Technology

Articles for Keyword "resevoir tank"

Buried And Semi-Submerged Water Tanks

Posted on Oct 25, 2011

Short technical brief on building buried and semi-submerged water tanks. This Technical Brief outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using buried and semi-submerged tanks for collecting and storing water. It also examines some of the design features and construction procedures. You can read the whole of this document as a PDF file (316...

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Ferrocement Water Tanks

Posted on Oct 25, 2011

Short technical brief on building ferrocement tanks. Ferrocement consists of a cement-rich mortar reinforced with layers of wire mesh, sometimes with additional plain wire reinforcement for added strength. Tanks made of ferrocement are used in many countries for the collection and storage of water for drinking, washing, for animal use and irrigation. You can read the whole of this document as a PDF file...

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Ferrocement Water Tanks And Their Construction

Posted on Oct 25, 2011

A detailed guide to building ferrocement water tanks. Water, tanks made from wire-reinforced cement-mortar are used widely in many parts of the world to store water for domestic, stock, irrigation and industrial purposes. They are built by hand trowelling a cement-rich mortar onto a mesh of wire reinforcement to form cylindrical tanks with thin walls which vary in thickness from 3 to 10cm depending on the size of the tank. The steel reinforcement usually consists of straight fencing wire wraped during construction around a cylindrical formwork, or woven wire mesh tied to a supporting framework of weld mesh or heavier reinforcing rod. Although this publication is called Ferrocement Water Tanks and their Construction, this is not strictly accurate. The tanks it describes should really be called wire-reinforced cement-mortar water tanks. The main difference is that in ferrocement there is a very dense mesh of woven or welded reinforcing wire that has to have a minimum value of wire volume for each unit volume of material. The quantities of straight wire reinforcement used in most of the examples collected for this publication fall far below this minimum value, although they provide ample strength for the purpose. Nevertheless the material is closer in many respects to ferrocement than to ordinary reinforced concrete. The wires distribute the loads through the mortar preventing them from concentrating in planes of’weakness which would lead to the early failure of an unreinforced material. The straight wire reinforcement is chosen because it is both many times cheaper than the equivalent weight of woven wire is easy to wrap around a small diameter cylindrical form. You can read the whole of this document as a PDF file...

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Rainwater Reservoirs for Roof Catchment

Posted on Oct 25, 2011

A GTZ manual detailing different catchment possibilities, tank designs, guttering and downpipes for domestic rainwater harvesting. This manual offers advice on a more professional approach towards rainwater catchment and the construction of different types of reservoirs. It also offers a selection of the most appropriate reservoir types and gives technical advice for the construction work. As far as possible it has been kept on a level which would allow an experienced bricklayer to use the information or a building technician acting as Clerk of Works or Supervisor to advise bricklayers and plasterers on the site. It is not suitable for laymen in the construction field. Just as it is not possible to learn the technique of bricklaying by reading a book, it is not possible to write a construction manual imparting all the knowledge needed for people without the practical experience in the construction field. You can read the whole of this document as a PDF file (1.1...

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Reservoir Tank – Brick Roof

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

This tank has a vaulted brick roof, a method that is both cheaper and quicker than making a reinforced concrete roof. The brick for the revervoir tank roof. Laying the first layer of bricks for the tank roof. Building up the layers. As long as the cement is of the correct consistency no pre-form is needed. The roof builds up over the tank. Building up more layers of bricks. The Roof From The Outside Layers of bricks. Laying the last layer of bricks. Fitting the tank cover. The finished brick work on the roof before it is plastered. Plastering the roof around the cover. The finished outside with the roof plastered. Plastering the inside of the roof. The exit pipes fitted to the tank base. Preparing to finish the base of the tank. Pouring the base of the tank. Finishing the base and the valve box for the exit pipes. The finished...

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Reservoir Tank – Mould

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

The reservoir tank is placed at a point near the village that is higher than all the houses that are to be supplied. The tank must be large enough to ensure an uninterrupted supply during the times of day when there is the peak demand. The tank is thus sized according to the size of the population and the flow rate from the spring during the dry season. The tank in this system is a 13 000 litre tank made from reinforced concrete using a pre-fabricated mould. The tank has a vaulted brick roof, a method that is both cheaper and quicker than making a reinforced concrete roof. Preparing the ground for the reservoir tank. Flattening the gravel base. Adding a layer of stones to the base. Pouring the concrete base onto the prepared gravel and stone layers. Finishing the concrete base. Adding re-bar to the base to provide reinforcement. Preparing the rebar for the reservoir tank wall. Constructiong the inside wall of the reservoir tank mould. The completed inside wall of the reservoir tank mould with re-bar around the outside.. Fitting the bottom layer of the mould’s outer wall. Mixing the concrete for the walls. Filling the bottom layer of the mould with concrete. Filling the top layer of the mould with concrete. The Filled Mould. The view inside the mould showing the exit pipe. Removing the outside sections of the mould. The outside of the tank wall once the mould is removed. Plastering the inside walls of the tank. Plastering the outside walls of the...

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Reservoir Tank Sizing Spreadsheet

Posted on Oct 25, 2011

This spreadsheet allows the user to calculate the required volume of a reservoir tank (Litres) based upon the overall daily demand of a community (Litres) and the flow rate into the tank (LPS). It also allows the user to calculate the material requirements (sand, gravel, cement etc) for the construction of a circular, curved roof ferro-cement reservoir tank given a known capacity (Litres) and tank wall height (m). Microsoft Excel...

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Storage Tank Photos

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

Photographs showing the construction of a large 41,000 litre ferrocement storage tank. This will open in a new window. Digging the foundations of the water tank. Flattening compacting the ground of the foundations. Cutting the re-bar for the base and walls. Marking out the tank area on the base. Joining chicken wire to the outside of the re-bar. The complete reinforcement. Note the exit pipes and washouts. Sieving the sand for the cement. Applying the first layer of cement. Applying the second layer of cement. Re-bar for the roof protruding from the top of the walls. Attaching the re-bar for the roof. Note the supporting tower in the canter, essential in large tanks. Attaching the chicken wire for to the re-bar on the roof. Filling in around the base with large stones. The finished 41,000 litre tank, enough for 230 families. A smaller cement tank. A small plastic tank attached to a rain-catchment...

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The Anatomy Of A Gravity Flow Water System

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

This section contains photographs that detail the construction of a gravity flow water system for 32 families. The system cost £130 per family and took 30 people 18 days to build. Before the system can be designed the area must be surveyed. The system consists of: A spring tank; A main pipeline, including a pipe bridge; A reservoir tank; A distribution network that leads to a tap at each house. For a gravity flow system to work properly the pipes must run full of water with no air locks. Gravity can then be used to move water, over hills and undulations, between the spring and the reservoir tank. This method works for as long as the spring tank is at the highest point in the system and that there is enough height difference, between the spring tank and the reservoir tank, to give a sufficient flow rate once friction losses have been taken into account. The distribution network also uses gravity to move water to the taps through thinner...

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