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The application of Appropriate Technology

Articles for Keyword "spring water tapping"

Small Community Water Supplies

Posted on Oct 24, 2011

This book is a very good place to start learning about building a water supply. It covers all the things that you will need to know about sourcing water including rain water harvesting, spring, wells and surface water. It also has sections on water quality and treatment. This book is made available here as PDF files. View or download the whole book in one file ( 9.8mb PDF file) 0r view the book chapter by chapter: Chapter 1: Introduction (92kb PDF file) Chapter 2: Planning and Management (124kb PDF file) Chapter 3: Small community water services in Central and Eastern European Countries – situation, challenges, needs and developments (100kb PDF file) Chapter 4: Water quality and quantity (112kb PDF file) Chapter 5: Integrated Water Resources Management (128kb PDF file) Chapter 6: Artificial recharge (636kb PDF file) Chapter 7: Rainwater harvesting (460kb PDF file) Chapter 8: Spring water tapping (1mb PDF file) Chapter 9: Pumping (500kb PDF file) Chapter 10: Groundwater withdrawal (1.7mb PDF file) Chapter 11: Surface water intake and small dams (772kb PDF file) Chapter 12: Water treatment (244kb PDF file) Chapter 13: Aeration (168kb PDF file) Chapter 14: Coagulation and flocculation (296kb PDF file) Chapter 15: Sedimentation (212kb PDF file) Chapter 16: Multi-stage filtration technology (688kb PDF file) Chapter 17: Rapid filtration (2.2mb PDF file) Chapter 18: Desalination technology (412kb PDF file) Chapter 19: Disinfection (292kb PDF file) Chapter 20: Water transmission (888kb PDF file) Chapter 21: Water distribution (1.3mb PDF file) Chapter 22: Technologies for fluoride removal (1.1mb PDF file) Chapter 23: Technologies for arsenic removal from groundwater (336kb PDF file) Chapter 24: Water supply in disasters and emergencies (1mb PDF...

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Spring Tank

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

Water is taken from a spring, rather than the river, to reduce the risk of contamination by parasites and other pernicious micro-organisms. A tank is built at the spring to ensure a continuous head of water above the start of the mainline. Thus, the mainline should always run full without any air locks.This tank is cast from conctret and consists of a sedimentation area and a 380 liter tank. Making a mould out of wood into which the concrete will be poured. Positioning the spring tank mould at the spring. Rebar is added to the mould to provide reinforcement for the concrete. Concrete being poured into the spring tank mould. Concrete being compacted into the mould. Once the spring tank is finished a dam is cast around the spring. The spring tank and spring dam. Preparing the top of the spring tank so that the roof can be cast. Making the roof and entry hatch on top of the spring tank out of reinforced concrete. The finished spring tank. The pipe exiting from the spring tank where the valve box will be. Building a retaining wall above the spring. Constructing a mould so that the valve box can be cast. Making the valve box roof. Putting the finishing touches to the valve box roof. Water flowing from the spring through a pipe to the sedimentation area. The finished spring with the dam, spring tank and valve...

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The Anatomy Of A Gravity Flow Water System

Posted on Nov 20, 2011

This section contains photographs that detail the construction of a gravity flow water system for 32 families. The system cost £130 per family and took 30 people 18 days to build. Before the system can be designed the area must be surveyed. The system consists of: A spring tank; A main pipeline, including a pipe bridge; A reservoir tank; A distribution network that leads to a tap at each house. For a gravity flow system to work properly the pipes must run full of water with no air locks. Gravity can then be used to move water, over hills and undulations, between the spring and the reservoir tank. This method works for as long as the spring tank is at the highest point in the system and that there is enough height difference, between the spring tank and the reservoir tank, to give a sufficient flow rate once friction losses have been taken into account. The distribution network also uses gravity to move water to the taps through thinner...

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